Scientific Research

Scientific Researches has demonstrated that Thiamin B1 is one of the key contributors in hangover symposium.

[1] Treatment of Alcoholic Polyneuropathy with Vitamin B Complex: A Randomised Controlled Trail. T. J. Peters, J. Kotowicz, W. Nyka, W. Kozubski, V. Kuznetsov, F. Vanderbist, S. De Niet, D. Marcereuil and M. Coffiner Alcohol & Alcoholism Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 636-642, 2006 Abstract

Abstract Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of BEFACT_ Forte ‘new formulation’ and BEFACT_ Forte ‘old formulation’ in the treatment of sensory symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy. Methods: A multi-centre, randomised, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 325 patients with sensory symptoms and signs of alcoholic polyneuropathy. Patients were randomised to the ‘old formulation’ (i.e. vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12), ‘new formulation’ [i.e. identical to the ‘old formulation’ with additional folic acid (vitamin B9)], or placebo in a 1:1:1 ratio. One tablet of the study medication (‘new formulation’ or ‘old formulation’) or placebo was taken orally, three times a day, over a 12-week treatment period. Results: Therapeutic efficacy was assessed in 253 patients by measuring vibration perception threshold (biothesiometry), intensity of pain, sensory function, co-ordination, and reflex responses. Patients treated with the ‘new formulation’ or ‘old formulation’ showed significant improvement in the primary efficacy endpoint (vibration perception threshold at the big toe) and secondary efficacy endpoints in comparison to placebo. The active treatment groups were comparable to placebo in terms of safety. Conclusions: A specific vitamin B complex (with and without folic acid) significantly improved symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy over a 12-week treatment period.

[2] Vitamin B12 and Hepatic Enzyme Serum Levels Correlate in Male Alcohol-Dependent Patients. Hubertus Himmerich, Ion Anghelescu, Christoph Klawe and Armin Szegedi, Alcohol & Alcoholism Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 26-28, 2001 Abstract

Abstract Vitamin B12 serum levels and markers for alcohol consumption were determined in 80 male alcohol-dependent patients. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Significant positive correlation between vitamin B12 and hepatic enzyme values were found. Therefore, for a proper interpretation of vitamin B12 levels, it may be clinically relevant to take markers of hepatocellular damage into account.

[3] B Vitamin Deficiency and Neuropsychiatric Syndromes in Alcohol Misuse. Christopher C. H. Cook, Phillip M. Hallwood and Allan D. Thomson, Alcohol & Alcoholism Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 317-336, 1998 Abstract

Abstract: Alcohol misuse and alcohol withdrawal are associated with a vanety of neuropsychiatric syndromes, some of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality B vitamin deficiency is known to contribute to the aetiology of a number of these syndromes, and B vitamin supplementation thus plays a significant part in prophylaxis and treatment. In particular, the Wemicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), due to thiamine deficiency, is a common condition in association with alcohol misuse, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Nicotinamide deficiency may result in a rarer condition, alcoholic pellagra encephalopathy, which often has a similar clinical presentation to WKS. This review considers the role of B vitamins in the aetiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with alcohol misuse, with particular emphasis on WKS.

[4] Alcohol Hangover: Mechanisms and Mediators. Robert Swift, M.D., Ph.D.; and Dena Davidson, Ph.D.,Alcohol Health Res World. 1998;22(1):54-60. Abstract

Abstract: Hangovers are a frequent, though unpleasant, experience among people who drink to intoxication. Despite the prevalence of hangovers, however, this condition is not well understood scientifically. Multiple possible contributors to the hangover state have been investigated, and researchers have produced evidence that alcohol can directly promote hangover symptoms through its effects on urine production, the gastrointestinal tract, blood sugar concentrations, sleep patterns, and biological rhythms. In addition, researchers postulate that effects related to alcohol's absence after a drinking bout (i.e., withdrawal), alcohol metabolism, and other factors (e.g., biologically active, nonalcohol compounds in beverages; the use of other drugs; certain personality traits; and a family history of alcoholism) also may contribute to the hangover condition. Few of the treatments commonly described for hangover have undergone scientific evaluation.

[5] The Alcohol Hangover - A Puzzling Phenomenon. Joris C. Verster, Alcohol & Alcoholism Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 124-126, 2008. Abstract

Abstract: The alcohol hangover develops when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) returns to zero and is  haracterized by a feeling of general misery that may last more than 24 h. It comprises a variety of symptoms including drowsiness, concentration problems, dry mouth, dizziness, gastro-intestinal complaints, sweating, nausea, hyper-excitability, and anxiety. The alcohol hangover is an intriguing issue since it is unknown why these symptoms are present after alcohol and its metabolites are eliminated from the body. Although numerous scientific papers cover the acute effects of alcohol consumption, researchers largely neglected the issue of alcohol hangover. This lack of scientific interest is remarkable, since almost everybody is familiar with the unpleasant hangover effects that may arise the day after an evening of excessive drinking, and with the ways these symptoms may affect performance of planned activities.

[6] The Alcohol Hangover. Jeffrey G. Wiese, M.D.; Michael G. Shlipak, M.D., M.P.H.; and Warren S. Browner, M.D., M.P.H. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(11):pp. 897-902. Abstract

Abstract: Review of scientific research on physiological pathways and treatment of hangover.

[7] Intoxication with Bourbon Versus Vodka: Effects on Hangover, Sleep and Next-Day Neurocognitive Performance in Young Adults. Damaris J. Rohsenow, Jonathan Howland, J. Todd Arnedt, Alissa B. Almeida, Jacey Greece, Sara Minsky, Carrie S. Kempler, and Suzanne Sales, Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010 Mar 1;34(3):509-18. Abstract

Abstract: Study on effects of heavy drinking with high- or low-congener beverages on next-day neurocognitive performance.

[8] Interventions for preventing or treating alcohol hangover: a systemic review of randomized controlled trials
Max H. Pittler, Joris C. Verster, Edzard Ernst, BMJ. 2005 Dec 24;331(7531):1515-8. Abstract

Abstract: Assessment of clinical evidence on effectiveness of medical interventions for preventing or treating hangover.

[9] Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats. Christina R. Maxwell, Rebecca Jay Spangenberg, Jan B. Hoek, Stephen D. Silberstein, Michael L. Oshinsky, PLoS One. 2010 Dec 31;5(12):e15963 Abstract

Abstract: Study on ability of pure ethanol to induce headache in normally-hydrated rats

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[22] Stephens R., Ling J., Heffernan T.M., Heather N., Jones K. A review of literature on the cognitive effects of alcohol hangover. Alcohol and alcoholism (2008) 43: pp.163-170

[23] Tomporowski P. D. Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychologica (2003) 112: pp.297-324. 

[24] Verster J. C. Congeners and alcohol hangover: differences in severity among Dutch college students after consuming beer, wine or liquor. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (2006) 30(Suppl. 6):53A. 

[25] Verster J. C., Roehrs T. Sleep after an evening of heavy drinking and its impact on daytime sleepiness and alcohol hangover severity. Sleep and Biological Rhythms (2007) 5(Suppl. 1):A18. 

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